Causal Models How People Think About The World And Its Alternatives

Causal Models   How People Think about the World and Its Alternatives
Publisher Oxford University Press, USA
Release Date
Category Psychology
Total Pages 224
ISBN 9780199728404
Rating 4/5 from 21 reviews
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Human beings are active agents who can think. To understand how thought serves action requires understanding how people conceive of the relation between cause and effect, between action and outcome. In cognitive terms, how do people construct and reason with the causal models we use to represent our world? A revolution is occurring in how statisticians, philosophers, and computer scientists answer this question. Those fields have ushered in new insights about causal models by thinking about how to represent causal structure mathematically, in a framework that uses graphs and probability theory to develop what are called causal Bayesian networks. The framework starts with the idea that the purpose of causal structure is to understand and predict the effects of intervention. How does intervening on one thing affect other things? This is not a question merely about probability (or logic), but about action. The framework offers a new understanding of mind: Thought is about the effects of intervention and cognition is thus intimately tied to actions that take place either in the actual physical world or in imagination, in counterfactual worlds. The book offers a conceptual introduction to the key mathematical ideas, presenting them in a non-technical way, focusing on the intuitions rather than the theorems. It tries to show why the ideas are important to understanding how people explain things and why thinking not only about the world as it is but the world as it could be is so central to human action. The book reviews the role of causality, causal models, and intervention in the basic human cognitive functions: decision making, reasoning, judgment, categorization, inductive inference, language, and learning. In short, the book offers a discussion about how people think, talk, learn, and explain things in causal terms, in terms of action and manipulation.

Causal Models   How People Think about the World and Its Alternatives
  • Author : Steven Sloman Professor of Psychology Brown University
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • Release Date : 2005-07-02

Human beings are active agents who can think. To understand how thought serves action requires understanding how people conceive of the relation between cause and effect, between action and outcome. In cognitive terms, how do people construct and reason with the causal models we use to represent our world? A

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Causality
  • Author : Judea Pearl
  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release Date : 2009-09-14

Written by one of the preeminent researchers in the field, this book provides a comprehensive exposition of modern analysis of causation. It shows how causality has grown from a nebulous concept into a mathematical theory with significant applications in the fields of statistics, artificial intelligence, economics, philosophy, cognitive science, and

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Causality and Causal Modelling in the Social Sciences
  • Author : Federica Russo
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2008-09-18

This investigation into causal modelling presents the rationale of causality, i.e. the notion that guides causal reasoning in causal modelling. It is argued that causal models are regimented by a rationale of variation, nor of regularity neither invariance, thus breaking down the dominant Human paradigm. The notion of variation

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Nonrecursive Causal Models
  • Author : William D. Berry
  • Publisher : SAGE
  • Release Date : 1984-07

Where an assumption of unidirectionality in causal effects is unrealistic, 'recursive' models cannot be used, and more complex 'nonrecursive' models are necessary. Unfortunately, many nonrecursive models (unlike recursive models) are 'unidentified', which makes meaningful parameter estimation impossible. Even when they are identified, it would be inappropriate to use OLS regression

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Inference and Intervention
  • Author : Michael D. Ryall,Aaron L. Bramson
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release Date : 2013-08-22

Ryall and Bramson's Inference and Intervention is the first textbook on causal modeling with Bayesian networks for business applications. In a world of resource scarcity, a decision about which business elements to control or change – as the authors put it, a managerial intervention – must precede any decision on how to

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Linear Causal Modeling with Structural Equations
  • Author : Stanley A. Mulaik
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2009-06-16

Emphasizing causation as a functional relationship between variables that describe objects, Linear Causal Modeling with Structural Equations integrates a general philosophical theory of causation with structural equation modeling (SEM) that concerns the special case of linear causal relations. In addition to describing how the functional relation concept may be generalized

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Causal Inference
  • Author : Miquel A. Hernan,James M. Robins
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2019-07-07

The application of causal inference methods is growing exponentially in fields that deal with observational data. Written by pioneers in the field, this practical book presents an authoritative yet accessible overview of the methods and applications of causal inference. With a wide range of detailed, worked examples using real epidemiologic

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Elements of Causal Inference
  • Author : Jonas Peters,Dominik Janzing,Bernhard Schölkopf
  • Publisher : MIT Press
  • Release Date : 2017-11-22

The mathematization of causality is a relatively recent development, and has become increasingly important in data science and machine learning. This book offers a self-contained and concise introduction to causal models and how to learn them from data. After explaining the need for causal models and discussing some of the

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The Oxford Handbook of Causal Reasoning
  • Author : Michael Waldmann
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release Date : 2017

Causal reasoning is one of our most central cognitive competencies, enabling us to adapt to our world. Causal knowledge allows us to predict future events, or diagnose the causes of observed facts. We plan actions and solve problems using knowledge about cause-effect relations. Without our ability to discover and empirically

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Parameter Estimation and Model Construction for Recursive Causal Models with Unidimensional Measurement
  • Author : David Wayne Gerbing
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 1979

Read online Parameter Estimation and Model Construction for Recursive Causal Models with Unidimensional Measurement written by David Wayne Gerbing, published by which was released on 1979. Download full Parameter Estimation and Model Construction for Recursive Causal Models with Unidimensional Measurement Books now! Available in PDF, ePub and Kindle.

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Multivariate Causal Models of Information Flow in Rural Brazil
  • Author : John Joseph Kochevar
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 1972

Read online Multivariate Causal Models of Information Flow in Rural Brazil written by John Joseph Kochevar, published by which was released on 1972. Download full Multivariate Causal Models of Information Flow in Rural Brazil Books now! Available in PDF, ePub and Kindle.

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Counterfactuals and Causal Inference
  • Author : Stephen L. Morgan,Christopher Winship
  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release Date : 2007-07-30

Did mandatory busing programs in the 1970s increase the school achievement of disadvantaged minority youth? Does obtaining a college degree increase an individual's labor market earnings? Did the use of the butterfly ballot in some Florida counties in the 2000 presidential election cost Al Gore votes? If so, was the number

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Causal Models in Travel Behavior Research
  • Author : Ram M. Pendyala,Ryūichi Kitamura
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 1993

Read online Causal Models in Travel Behavior Research written by Ram M. Pendyala,Ryūichi Kitamura, published by which was released on 1993. Download full Causal Models in Travel Behavior Research Books now! Available in PDF, ePub and Kindle.

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Doing Management Research
  • Author : Raymond-Alain Thietart
  • Publisher : SAGE
  • Release Date : 2001-04-18

`This book provides refreshing and powerful insights on the challenges of conducting management research from a European perspective. Particulalrly for someone embarking on a managment research career this book will provide valuable guidelines.' -- Ian MacMillan, Wharton School of Business, University of Pennsylvania `This comprehensive volume is distinguished by

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Causal Models in the Social Sciences
  • Author : Hubert M. Blalock
  • Publisher : Chicago : Aldine·Atherton
  • Release Date : 1971

Read online Causal Models in the Social Sciences written by Hubert M. Blalock, published by Chicago : Aldine·Atherton which was released on 1971. Download full Causal Models in the Social Sciences Books now! Available in PDF, ePub and Kindle.

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